A new move to improve students' reading scores could force up to two-thirds of third-graders to be held back in school.
Lawmakers in seven states have passed or are considering legislation that would make students repeat third grade if they can't pass state reading exams.
Only one-third of U.S. school children had passing scores on the most recent national reading exam, and scores have barely budged in two decades.
Studies have found that children who don't read proficiently by third grade are four times as likely to drop out of school.
Lawmakers said the goal is to get parents, students and teachers working together to address the literacy problem when it first shows up.
Texas is not one of the states considering the legislation.